confusion of restrictive and non-restrictive clauses
obvious errors of fact
At this level of edit I am not concerned with matters of style, organization, argument, or evidence.
Substantive editing (heavy editing):
In addition to the above considerations, I improve style by working to achieve a consistent tone and a clarity and flow of language. To this end I
smooth out awkward language
eliminate ambiguity, wordiness, redundancies, jargon, slang, and bias
change passive to active voice where appropriate
clarify indefinite pronouns
rework run-on sentences and noun strings
point out vague or confusing language
indicate where paraphrase is preferable to quotation
rework paragraph structure and transitions
This level of edit includes some attention to organization but not to arguments or evidence.
Structural editing (manuscript evaluation and critique):
At this level of edit I analyze the document as a whole, looking for strengths and weaknesses in organization, argument, and evidence. I consider whether
the document is clearly organized
you have an effective introduction
you have a strong conclusion
you have a compelling hypothesis or theme
you have clearly stated your hypothesis or theme
your arguments support your hypothesis
your evidence supports your arguments
you have sufficient evidence
your arguments or sequence of ideas flow logically and are easy to follow
your assumptions are valid
logic, facts, and details are consistent
paragraphs are well structured and developed
you have a good balance of primary and secondary sources
your introduction, conclusion, arguments, and evidence are all clearly related.
I also query possible errors or omissions. At this level I am not editing for such matters as grammar, spelling, punctuation, style, or usage, which require a separate edit if you choose; this is best done after the structural editing. Also, I perform this type of editing only for documents in the humanities, arts, and social sciences.
I will conform a document to a particular style (APA, MLA, Chicago/Turabian, CBE, AP, or other journal or publisher style) or to university and department guidelines for theses and dissertations. This includes but is not limited to the following considerations:
typeface and font
proper sequencing of manuscript pages
These different levels of editing necessarily shade into one another, and it’s not always easy to decide where one ends and another begins. For this reason your document may receive a bit more editing than you arranged for, but never less, and at no extra charge.
I charge $40.00/hour for all levels of editing, with a 10% discount for graduate students, adjuncts, and independent scholars ($36.00/hour). For more information, please see the Fees and Payment page.